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Actual problems of literary translation

Гудкова Ганна м.Херсон

Translation holds a special place in the literary process as each literary genre relies certain kind of translation. Thus, for the translation of literature used literary translation, which is a special kind of translation, because it is not accurate transfer of content and reflection of the views and feelings of the author's prose or poetic nuance through the use of another language.

The goal of the Article is the analysis of the main problems of literary translation and ways to overcome translator.

The article deals with some lingual aspects of artistic translation as a basic mechanism of inter-cultural communication which draws together and enriches the culture of people.

Key words: artistic translation, inter-cultural communication, culture of people, aesthetical function of the language. [1]


In today's world all set to exchange information. Mankind tries to direct its development in a single direction. Especially happy country showcase their achievements in the field of art, the more that music and painting are arts versatile because they directly through sight and hearing, affect feelings. Literature occupies a special place among the arts. Sometimes literary work facing significant barriers to the reader if the reader is a carrier of another language system than the author of the work. Come to the aid translation, kind of creativity that holds a special place in literature. Translation as a literary phenomenon has a long history, but the modern translation as an independent science emerged mostly in the second half of the last century, as the postwar expansion of international contacts in all spheres of human communication led to increased demand for translation and translators.

With a broad and active involvement of translation and interpretation Ukraine took to successfully establish and maintain international contacts and friendly relations with the outside world in general, and not only with countries that recognized it. And, unfortunately, this is not true of literary translation. The economic and financial crisis that took place immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union, forced to stop or reduce the number of publications and most major publishing houses of the country. As a result, literary translation in state publishing the second half of the last century was almost in a state of stagnation. This was despite the huge contribution to the translation activity of such figures as M. Lucas, G. Kochur, I. Steshenko, Boris Tan, Y. Lisnyak, A.Perepadya, O. Seniuk, V. Shovkun at alias.

Literary translation - one of illustrative manifestations interliteral (and therefore somehow intercultural) interaction. In fact, it is a major part of the national literary process. Literary translation is not dealing with the communicative function of language, and its aesthetic function, since the word appears as "primary element" literature. This requires an interpreter particular diligence and scholarship. In the art work displayed not only certain events, but also aesthetic and philosophical views of its author, who either are coherent system - or a mixture of fragments of different theories. The translator must have, if not profound, at least sufficient to transfer knowledge in philosophy, aesthetics, ethnography (as in some works display details of everyday life heroes), geography, botany, navigation, astronomy, history, arts and others. [ 2 ]

Another problem of literary translation - the ratio of the author context and the interpreter context. In the literary translation the context of recent is very close to the first context. The criterion matches, or, alternatively, differences both contexts is a measure of the ratio of data validity and data taken from the literature. The writer goes on to reality and his perception of words assigned to the image. In other words, if the real data is dominated, then talking about the author's work. Translator goes from existing text and playing in the imagination of reality through its "secondary," "cited" the perception of the new figurative embodiment, embodied in the translated text. That is, if the literary origin data is dominated, it is then a context interpreter.

It should be noted that literary translation is due not only to objective factors (specific historical literary canon, regulatory custom) but also subjective (poetry translation). No translation can not be entirely accurate, since the whole language system receiving literature in its objective data can not perfectly convey the meaning of the original, which inevitably leads to the loss of a certain amount of information.

In the literary translation to the above factors add more personality and translator who to some extent is also the author of the work. He can produce elements of the content, transmit or not transmit all features of the original. Each language element works, using a variety of associative connections, influences creative thinking the speakers and creates in his mind certain images. Logical that during the translation of the work into another language, because of language differences, these associative is largely destroyed. To work is not lost its value in the new language environment, the interpreter must take over the functions of the author and even somewhat replicate the creative process of its creation, a work filled with new associative links that would cause new images peculiar to a particular language media. [3]

Another problem of literary translation - the problem of accuracy and fidelity, especially noticeable in poetry. When translating prose before the translator faces the problem of a mismatch in semantic meaning and stylistic expression of words and phrases of different languages. But in prose word has primarily semantic meaning and is an expression of stylistic tone, but in poetry the word is in rhythmic series of poetic works, and this leads to some changes in his qualities. Trying to play in the poetic work of all elements will lead to the loss of harmony work, so you need to determine which elements in this work are the main and display them with the possible precision, not paying or paying negligible attention to others. According to the researchers, the translation should sound like the original verses and is one of the elements of accuracy or fidelity. But through the prism of the host language must clearly felt the national spirit and national original form and individual style of the poet. Translator of the poetry must offer to its readers new images, new shapes, new styles with each new translation, his personal style should be discernible.

Literary translation is bilateral in nature: on the one hand it is a product of interliteral communication, while it largely determines and defines it. Traditionally it was believed that the main function of translation - informative, since the theory of literary translation fits into the national literary process, or understand it too one-sided. But now the translation has two main functions: informative and creative. Thus, literary translation means playing native language features outlandish literary text in inseparable dialectical unity of content and form. And one of the important elements of perception literature in a foreign language. In certain situations, active creative literary translations function. This is in close literary community, which forms two or more literatures, and within which operates a partial or full bilingualism. Thus there is a stirring partnership attitude interpreter to the original, due to the desire to update the original artistic values ​​in historical and literary host system literature. Information function recedes into the background, and the first place is two-dimensional, double, that is higher enriched reception original. Original work and its translation are treated as two different works. The result is a perception bilingual edition, giving readers the opportunity to more fully compare the original and the translation, trace, and possibly analyze job interpreter evaluate this work from the standpoint of accuracy and fidelity, the use of artistic techniques and tools, similarities and differences between the original and the translation. These publications are usually designed for bilingual readers and offer him to take a partner or even somewhat creative position on the original and its author.

Thus, the translator must not only be knowledgeable and to have sufficient, at least for translation knowledge, but intuitively feel the text and the best translation words, phrases or sentences. Necessary for him is the ability to determine what elements in his work are the main and try to display them with the possible accuracy while retaining the individual style of the author and in some situations, activating the creative literary translation function.

Conclusions and recommendations for further research. Artistic text is a means of communication, the basis intra social dialogue between different generations of a linguistic community, because accumulates the knowledge that determine heredity of its cultural heritage. Changes in the structure of social knowledge is also recorded in the texts and are in communication that promotes the preservation of linguistic and cultural traditions of native speakers. The problem of adequate understanding of the text content by reader of any generation is relevant and important that speakers perceive and interpret not only modern but also created in the distant past with texts encoded in their language and aesthetic information. They can be regarded as elements of another, earlier, culture, considering the authors of these works of other members of society, which proceeded the current generation of native speakers. Communication, which involved these texts - is a special case of intercultural and simultaneously intra social dialogue. Penetration depth in historical literary processes enables to rethink the classic works of world and Ukrainian literature. The art of translation has been and remains an important mediator in the interaction of cultures. Literary translation extends mutual contact of Ukrainian literature and other literatures of the world.

Consequently, the more the original translated into Ukrainian, the richer it becomes our culture.

As you know, comprehensive playback of all verbal wealth of original text with direct lexical equivalents language of the recipient - is unattainable for translation purpose. But it can and must achieve adequate transfer content embodied in images, and proper preservation of genre and stylistic and structural and compositional features of the original.

As artistically translated text is primarily semantic stylistic parallel first-work, then it follows that the scientific study of the translation is not purely literary or linguistic. It is closely related to comparative stylistics two languages ​​and involves actually translation analysis, which is largely based on the theoretical basis of modern communicative linguistics. Each ethno-linguistic community traced special treatment for various stages of diachronic self and world literature are certain relations with other nations, but because the history of translation in each of them. However, the common point lead role of translation as an effective means of cross-language and cross-cultural communication, which not only promotes the progressive flowering of national languages ​​and cultures, but also the overall development of human civilization.


  1. Kravchuk I. V. Artistic Translation as an Important Aspect of Inter-Cultural Communication.

  2. Volovik O.O., Pogrebnaya V.Ya. Phylological Sciences / Actual problems Crossing

3 Lyovik V. About accuracy and loyalty / VV Lyovik / / Translation - a means mutually convergence of peoples. - M., 1987

4. Koptilov VI Pershotvir and translation / IV Koptilov. - K., 1972.
5. Etkind E. Poetry and translation / E. Etkind. - M., 1963.
6. Koptilov V. Current issues Ukrainian literary translation / Koptilov VV - Kyiv: Dnipro 1971. - 129 p.

7. Koptilov V. Pershotvir and translation [Text] / Koptilov VV - Kyiv: Dnipro, 1972. - 213 p.

Гудкова Ганна Геннадіївна

Викладач кафедри соціально-гуманітарних дисциплін