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N.U.Saibekova (Kazakhstan, Almaty)

The main direction of an article is the Bologna process in higher schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The main considerable question is the development of higher education system in Kazakhstan and implementation of Bologna process at higher schools.

Education is the most important element of human capital development for every country in the world. A citizen that receives the required training can develop knowledge and analytical skills, move the national economy forward, form the basis of civil society, educate the next generation, lead an effective government and make important decisions influencing the life of the entire society. Being the most important factor of human development, education has a highly significant and probably essential influence on the achievement of a whole set of social, economic, political and humanitarian goals. These include achieving a level and quality of life adequate to modern civilization, eliminating poverty, ensuring an efficient workforce, reducing social disparities, eliminating gender and racial inequality, reducing criminality, combating the spread of HIV/AIDS, preventing political and ethnic conflicts, promoting sustainable development, strengthening civil sum, education can create the conditions needed for the complete realization of an individual's capacity. Changes in the approach to education clearly reflect the trends of modern social development. The traditional understanding of education as the organized process of systematically transferring and acquiring knowledge, abilities, skills, characteristics and moral values has changed. Education now is regarded as the development and self-development of an individual in mastering the collective social experience of humanity. Such development is expressed in knowledge, abilities, creative activities and emotional and value-based attitudes towards the world. As such, it is a pre-condition for the actions of the individual and society to develop and protect its own material and spiritual culture. Education as a social phenomenon and process, as a social system and, finally, as a social institution is connected to practically all changes taking place in society. This is even more so with regard to education in societies undergoing profound qualitative transformations, as is the case in Kazakhstani society today. The transitional nature of the processes taking place in the country dominant place of market relations cannot fail to influence the social institution of education as a whole and its subparts in particular. Thus, while considering the impact of education on the development of human capital, one should take into account its relation with the individual and society as a whole. So, what is higher education? Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology. Higher education also includes certain collegiate-level institutions, such as vocational schools, trade schools, and career colleges, that award academic degrees or professional certifications. In recent years, the Government of Kazakhstan has been showing a particular concern for education. The top leadership of the country is perfectly aware of the fact that in the age of the global, scientific and technological revolution and knowledge form the most important element of the strategy of social development. It is impossible to build an independent competitive economy (which is the objective of Kazakhstan) without having trained people in the country. The intellectual potential capable of tackling this task on the basis of modern high technologies. The basic features of the education reform in the Republic of Kazakhstan can be presented in the following ways:

The structure of educational facilities is being transformed under consideration of the condition and needs of a market economy.

New educational structures are going to be setup.

The approach to the transformation of diverse stages of education is differentiated to a considerable extent, much more attention being paid to the reformation of its higher stages.

The economic base of education is changing.

International student exchange is being actively supported by the Government of Kazakhstan.

So, the Bologna Process takes place as the new educational structure in Kazakhstan. What is the purpose of Bologna Process? The purpose of the Bologna Process (or Bologna Accords) is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna, with the signing in 1999 of the Bologna declaration by Education Ministers from 29 European countries. It was opened up to other countries signatory to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe; further governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), and Leuven (2009). Before the signing of the Bologna declaration, the Magna Charta Universitatum had been issued at a meeting of university rectors celebrating the 900th anniversary of the University of Bologna - and thus of European universities - in 1988. One year before the Bologna declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jьrgen Rьttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer (Italy) and Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration [1] in Paris 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system". It is a common misconception that the Bologna Process is an EU initiative. The Bologna Process currently has 47 participating countries [2], whereas there are only 27 Member States of the EU [3]. While the European Commission is an important contributor to the Bologna Process, the Lisbon Recognition Convention was actually prepared by the Council of Europe and members of the Europe Region of UNESCO [4]. Kazakhstan was the first Central Asian state that signed the Bologna Declaration and a full-fledged member of the European Higher Education Area. The ideas of the Bologna Process helped to form the basis of the State Education Development Program of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020. Kazakhstan joined the European Higher Education Area (the Bologna Process) in March 2011. Currently, 60 universities of Kazakhstan signed the Great Charter. The Great Charter was adopted in 1988 in Bologna. By signing this document the universities commit to development of autonomy of universities, democratic principles of management, academic freedom of students, freedom of scientific research, etc. The State Program on development of education for 2020 provides for fulfillment of obligatory and recommended parameters of the Bologna Process. The State Program provides for establishment of the Bologna Process Center and the Center of Academic Mobility. Besides, the developed in April 2011 new rules of organization of education process on credit technology provides for scale of evaluation of credit technology in Kazakhstan and the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and mutual excepting of education programs, organization of academic mobility within Kazakhstan's model of excepting credits on the ECTS basis, using of the European system of transfer and accumulation of credits in education process and module building of education programs. Thus, the legal framework for development of academic mobility has been created. It is one of the effective ways to increase the quality of training personnel. The first steps in development of academic mobility have already been made. In 2011 the state for the first time supported the study in foreign higher education institution for one academic period in the best universities of Europe, South East Asia and the CIS. Besides, the mechanism of internal academic mobility was developed. The principle of this mechanism is 'regional higher education institution - national university' and it means that the students from the regional higher education institutions will be able to study in the leading higher education institutions of the country. The system of higher education underwent restructuring. Before in the system of higher education has candidate of pedagogical sciences, candidate of philosophical sciences, etc. But, after restructuring the defence had been stopped. And, the three level model of education was introduced: Bachelor's program, Master's program and doctorate. New principles of financing of higher education were introduced. 38 universities of the country perform two diploma education, 131 universities conduct the education process accordingly with credit technology and 42 higher education universities conduct distant teaching. The program on development of education for 2020 provides for the measures that will promote autonomy of the national research universities since 2015, national higher education institutes - since 2016 and since 2018 all the rest higher education institutions of the country. The fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan will allow to provide quality services at the level of world standards in view of integration into the European Higher Education Area. So, I would like to say about the Union of European universities at our university, so called KazNPU named after Abai. The first Kazakh higher education institution was established in September 1, 1928 and was named Kazakh State University. Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University is one of the major higher educational institutions of Kazakhstan. A system of lifelong education has been developed and is almost introduced in the university. Today KazNPU named after Abai and its subdivisions include 10 faculties. The training of specialists is handled in 60 chairs in 54 specialities. Students study in full-time, part-time, distance learning, evening departments of the university. Moreover, there are pre-university departments (1,5 thousand students). Our university joined union of European universities (Magna Charta Universitatum). Joining Magna Charta means the participant of the agreement complies with all international standards in the field of education and science, and is one of the most prospective educational and scientific centers of the world.

To sum up, I would like to say that the Bologna process at the higher schools in our country and the international relations with other foreign higher schools have been developing and academic mobility of students and teachers at higher schools in our country has been increased. At present more than 50,000 foreign students from 43 countries of the world studying at different Universities of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan Universities has articulation agreements with Ukrainian, German, Japanese, French and U.S.A Universities. Students can get their credit transfer & post graduation programmes afterwards. In today's transition to innovation and knowledge-based economic system is necessary to develop the quality of education. Today there is a steady trend of integration of Kazakhstan education in the world educational space, thereby increasing the level of educational services in higher education in Kazakhstan.


1. "Prague" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2010.

2. Bologna Secretariat, Brussels (2010). "Welcome to the website of the European Higher Education Area: The official Bologna Process website 2007-2010". Benelux Bologna Secretariat. Retrieved 21 June 2010.

3. Niki Gatrell (5 December 2008). "FAQ". Europe Unit. Retrieved 28 April 2010.

4. "About the Bologna Process". be: Ond.vlaanderen.be. 19 June 1999. Retrieved 28 April 2010.