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Pharmaceutical Education in Kharkiv Region in the Second Half of the ХІХ – at the Beginning of the ХХ Centuries.

Alena Yakuba (Kharkiv, Ukraine)

Domestic farmacy is one of the most dynamic and successful industries. The achievements of pharmaceutical science and activity of the specialized educational establishments which prepare real professionals for pharmaceutical industry led to this. Actually the purpose of the system of training of pharmaceutical personnels, which must be built taking into account the subsequent effective use, is vitally a necessary function of supply of high-quality and safe medications to the population. Among other tasks of pharmaceutical education it is possible to distinguish the creation and development of production of domestic medicines, their quality control, providing proper organizationally methodical maintenance of pharmaceutical business and so on.

The origins of pharmaceutical education in Sloboa Ukraine should be found in Kharkiv university. According to its Charter of 1804 four departments were opened, and the medical one in particular. The latter included the subdepartments of medical rechovynosliv'ya, pharmacy and medical philology [1, p. 7].

After opening of the Kharkiv university a chemical laboratory was included in its structure. From 1812 to 1847 a pharmaceutical laboratory was functioning there. In the laboratory practical classes on pharmacy, pharmacognosy and other major disciplines were conducted. It was here where druggists were examined.

In the ХІХ century women had no rights to enter the pharmaceutical department. Only in 1885 the Pharmaceutical Council acknowledged the right of women for pharmaceutical education. Pharmacies got a permission from the Medical department to accept female students only in May 1888. The pharmacies which accepted a female student, had no right to hire the male students any more. A few years later this limitation was revoked, but in pre-revolution times women in pharmaceutical business remained an exception [3, p. 162 ].

Chemical and pharmaceutical laboratories were finally separated only in 1850.

From the second half of the 1860s pharmacy and pharmacognosy were taught by chemist asistants for two semesters. There were two and afterwards four hours a week. As for the laboratory classes, there were 3 hours every week for two semesters [4, p. 12–13; 10, p. 13].

On the edge of the 1860–70s of the ХIХ century there were substantial changes in the university curricula. There were no theoretical lectures for druggists any longer.

In the 1870s there is a tendency to growing the popularity of profession of a chemist-druggist.

At the beginning of the 1880s there was a lack of the laboratory rooms. The point was that the rooms which the laboratory had got thirty years before did not meet the present-time needs of both the educational process and the research work.

Therefore in 1885 three more rooms on the third floor of the new university building in Sumskaya street were given. On the edge of the 1880–90s two more rooms were added [2, p. 303–304].

From the middle of the 1880s the laboratory became the place to have classes on pharmacy and pharmacognosy. The medical faculty students attended the classes. The changes in the program of practical classes for druggists took place as well. The range of problems for the classes was considerably extended. The separate subdepartment of pharmacy and pharmacognosy appeared. A significant role in its establishment was played by the first Head of the subdepartment, the Magister of Pharmacy, Professor A.D.Chirikov. It was he who headed the pharmaceutical laboratory.

At the beginning of the 1890s the theoretical lectures for druggists turned back to curricula. In the second half of the ХIХ century the necessity of changes for the system of pharmaceutical education was becoming more and more actual. At the beginning of the ХХ century the amount of students and listeners who studied in the pharmaceutical laboratory substantially increased. It can be explained by expansion of the educational program as well as by growth of the amount of students on the whole.

In the conditions of the First World War the problem of training of skilled pharmaceutical personnels became totally actual. For this period the general getting up in the industry of pharmaceutical education and science was typical.

On August 25, 1915 the Circular of the Minister of Public Education, which had forseen the opening of the chemical-pharmacuetical department at the physics and mathematics faculty of the Kharkiv university, appeared [5, p. 57].

Consequently it was the lack of pharmaceutical staff and poor organization of their training that were principal reasons for the retard of pharmacy business in pre-revolutionary Russia. There was no special educational establishment in the country. The departments of pharmacy, which were preparing pharmacy labor, existed only within the medical faculties of a few universities, and the Kharkiv one in particular.

A considerable level of professional training of pharmacists in the second half of the ХIХ century – at the beginning of the ХХ century, progress in development of pharmaceutical education in the university are related to the names of prominent scientists, professors who worked then: A.D. Chirikov, M.O. Valyashko, M.P. Krasovskiy, A.D. Rosenfeld and others.



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  3. Мнушко З. М. Історія медицини та фармації : навч. посібник для студентів вищих навч. закладів / З. М. Мнушко, І. О. Шевченко, О. В. Шевченко та ін. – Х. : Золоті сторінки, 2009. – 208 с.

  4. Обозрение преподаваемых предметов в Императорском Харьковском университете на 1866/1867 уч. г. — Х., 1866.

  5. Отчет о состоянии деятельности Императорского Харьковского университета за 1915 г. — Х., 1916.


Науковий керівник:

кандидат історичних наук, професор, Куделко Сергій Михайлович.